As Iain Chambers shows, postcolonial theory also challenges traditional Western images of science and conceptions of humanism. In certain ways, it is a symptom of the Second Modern Age in which self-evident truths disappear because modernization and the processes linked to it have become reflexive Beck et al. Rather, they are based on the political articulation of historical links and limitations, on the connection and disconnection of elements. Culture can be understood as a continuing, open and unfinished process which is intensified in the course of globalization and which is increasingly reflexive.
The title Global America?
The Cultural Consequences of Globalization formulates a research question that is more closely examined by theoretical conceptualizations in Part I of this book. Ulrich Beck argues that the idea of Americanization suggests a national understanding of globalization that is poorly adapted to the transnational world of the Second Modern Age. This serves to dispel the binary thinking that still tends to characterize discussions on postcolonialism. George Ritzer and Todd Stillman also attempt to provide theoretical grounding for the notions of Americanization and globalization.
They relate these to McDonaldization, that is, the increasing rationalization of society. Fast-food restaurants are associated all over the world with the American way of life. The McDonaldization process linked to this is defined by increased efficiency, and the ability to predict and calculate the production process.
This process is not necessarily one of Americanization but refers to the forms of standardization typical of the present late modern age, the same forms that characterize the field of consumption. Ritzer and Stillman view both Americanization and McDonaldization as specific and not identical expressions of globalization and emphasize the homogenizing effect of Americanization. John Tomlinson focuses on the relationship between culture, modernity and immediacy.
Tomlinson argues for a culturally critical imagination which can examine the emerging processes of globalization in an unbiased way. In Part II these theoretical explanations are put to the test by national case studies. This not only impacts on the field of consumption and popular culture but also has a decisive influence on economic and development policies, international politics and questions of security. Nederveen Pieterse believes that a coalition of progressive powers from Europe, Asia and America is needed to influence the development of globalization and its cultural consequences.
His examples show that France is doubtless more American today than in the s.
On the other hand, Gerard Delanty shows the limits of Americanization by analysing the example of Japan. Americanization succeeds within the structures of the Japanese culture yet paradoxically helps to support that very culture. Yu Keping shows as regards present-day China that Americanization and anti-Americanization exist at the same time. Aihwa Ong examines the role of Asiatic techno-migrants in the network economy, especially in California and Vancouver.
Many contemporary issues cannot be readily or fully understood at the level of the nation state and the concept of globalization is used to develop understandin. This volume explores the phenomenon of Americanization and its worldwide impact, and the cultural consequences of globalization. Following an introductory .
The vision of freedom and the hope for a good life have brought generations of Asian migrants to North America. Using the example of the Americanization of the Holocaust, Natan Sznaider shows how a global memory has arisen which is based on mass-mediated forms of communication that transcend territorial and linguistic borders.
This however does not mean that it is uniformly structured. Because global culture is characterized by processes of hybridization and individualization, the experience of time is heterogeneous, fragmented and plural. Ethnic minorities in the USA such as African-Americans, Jews and others have developed — beyond the nation state — their own forms of memory in which collective identities are expressed.
Even here the outlines of a cosmopolitan global project are revealed. Eva Illouz discusses suffering as a form of collective identity, where transnational culture contains not only utopian possibilities, as Appadurai shows, but also makes a spectacle of private and public grief. Through a number of examples, including an ethnographic examination of hip-hop culture in Germany, he shows how hybrid formations arise. The transnational culture of hip-hop also demonstrates that a globally anchored cultural identity and local identification are not mutually exclusive but rather are two sides of one process.
Its eclectic character makes it possible to link it to various musical styles. Regev explains that this American cultural form has become the dominant habitus across the world, to produce local music that expresses rebellion against traditions and authoritarian regimes. This produces a dual identity, which is both local and cosmopolitan.
Rob Kroes examines whether the Internet acts an instrument of Americanization, by spreading American cultural values and mental disposition.
He concludes that there is an elective affinity between the logic of the Internet and American values which enables individual consumers to break apart coherent wholes and combine them creatively into new ones. In his epilogue Roland Robertson takes an in-depth look at definitions of Americanization and anti-Americanism.
Robertson states the case for circumspection and analytical accuracy in dealing with the crucial issue of Americanization. This volume was completed with America and the world facing a period of deep crisis as a result of the terror attacks on New York and Washington DC on 11 September Was the attack aimed at American power or global culture?
Was it both? The USA decided that it was an attack on its national security. The response was an assertion of sovereignty as the attack on Iraq in demonstrated. However, if the attack had been defined within the framework presented here — that is, as an attack against global culture, a crime against humanity — then the reaction would have been global as well. This was not the case. International tribunals can serve as a model. The terror attack on 11 September and the war against Iraq correspond to uncertainties about our own world and in particular the discontinuities that exemplify the transition to global modernity.
The contributions to this volume with the exception of the epilogue were written well before these attacks and before the USA decided to go to war.
Is this the limit case for global America? Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Public Culture 12 1 : 1— Baudrillard, Jean , America. London: Verso. Cambridge: Polity Press. Theory, Culture and Society 16 1 : 41— Paris: Editions du Seuil. Berkeley: University of California Press. London and New York: Routledge. Hannerz, Ulf , Cultural Complexity. New York: Columbia University Press. Hardt, Michael, and Antonio Negri , Empire. Held, David , Democracy and the Global Order. Horkheimer, Max, and Theodor W. Adorno , Dialectic of Enlightenment. New York: Herder and Herder.
London: Sage Publications. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp. London and New York: Routledge: — Dualism and Mass Consumption in Trinidad. Oxford and New York: Berg. London: Sage Publications: 25— Sombart, Werner , Die Juden und das Wirtschaftsleben. Leipzig: Dunker und Humblot. Tomlinson, John , Globalization and Culture. Wenders, Wim , On Film. Bush, tend to declare that the USA is the guiding light of the world.
There are, however, many people, even in the USA, who would take the opposite stance. Whereas Clinton saw America as a vector for expansion of the free market and democracy throughout the world, others see corporate globalism dotting the landscape with McDonalds and filling the airwaves with Disney. Each time this happens, commentators point out that the protesters present a bewildering array of demands.
Thus global America is indeed highly controversial. European intellectuals have also criticized it deeply see Bohrer and Scheel , or Bourdieu and Wacquart But is Europe an entity with a competing vision? Or, to be harsh, does it have a vision at all? Do Europeans want, for example, to expand to include Eastern Europe and Russia?
Do Europeans have any strong feelings that are not inspired by fear — fear of losing their national sovereignty, a decline in their quality of life, a drop in their global clout? In this chapter I would like to clarify some conceptual oppositions.
My claim is that the concept of Americanization is based on a national understanding of globalization. Things are made even more complicated by the fact that it is very difficult to draw a clear-cut line between these concepts, which is what makes the theme of this book so tricky and exciting.
The term has a long history in the social sciences, going back to ancient Greek philosophy Diogenes as well as to the Enlightenment Kant, among many others. Since the late s there has been a sharp increase in literature that attempts to relate discourse on globalization in cultural and political terms to a redefinition of cosmopolitanism for the global age. To be more precise, every individual is rooted in one cosmos, but simultaneously in different cities, territories, ethnicities, hierarchies, nations, religions, and so on. This is not an exclusive but rather an inclusive plural membership Heimaten.
Being part of the cosmos — nature — all men and even all women are equal; yet being part of different states organized into territorial units polis , men are different bearing in mind that women and slaves are excluded from the polis. This was the dominant mode of social and political theorizing and political action in the first modern nation-state societies and sociologies. This definition also casts aside the dominant opposition between cosmopolitans and locals, since there is no cosmopolitanism without localism.